Traditional Educational Institutions in Child Education in Sierra Leone

INTRODUCTIONSierra Leone is located on the south-west, north west and north-east from the Republic Guinea, on the south-east from the Republic of Liberia and on south-west by the Atlantic Ocean. It’s a place of 27,925 square miles.

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The colony of Sierra Leone originated from the sale and cession from 1787 by native chiefs to English settlers of a piece of land intended as a home for African settlers that were waifs in London and later it was used as a settlement for freed African American slaves. The hinterland was declared a British Protectorate on 21st August, 1896. Sierra Leone attained independence on 27th April, 1961 and became a Republic in 1971. Education is provided by both private and state-sponsored schools. The present system of schooling is 6-3-4-4 (that’s six years Main faculty, three years Junior Secondary School, four years Senior Secondary School and four decades tertiary/higher education. This program is complemented by non- formal education.CONCEPT OF EDUCATIONInstruction is frequently utilized in the sense of instruction from the classroom, lab, workshop or domestic science room and consists principally from the imparting by the teacher, along with the acquisition by students, of advice and psychological in addition to manual skills. A broader significance than schooling is that of schooling. That’s to say everything that goes on inside the school as part of the student’s life there. It includes, among other things, connection between pupils and teachers, pupils and pupils both in and outside the school. J. S. Mill (1931) opined that whatever helps to shape the human beingto make the person what he is or dissuade him from being what he is not is part of his schooling. Implicitly instruction is lifelong and ubiquitous; it is the sum total of all influences that go to make a man what he is, from birth to death. It features the house, our neighbors, and also the road among others.Education would be to some extent a deliberate intended procedure devised and ran by the instructor with the goal of imbuing the learner with certain information, skills, of body and mind in addition to styles of behavior considered desirable. In part it’s the student’s own reply to the environment in which he resides. Education includes three focal points: the individual/person upon whom the instructor’s influences are brought to bear; the community or society to which he belongs; along with the whole context of reality within the person and culture play their part. Man is a social animal; he develops as a person through the impact of personality on personality; and even because of his basic physical needs he depends upon the assistance and collaboration of his fellow men and women. Among the basic facts of human presence is that the pressure between the pull of yesteryear and the forwards urge into the near future, between change and stability, tradition and innovation. For successful living,man needs a circle of security, an area of established habits and relationship that creates reliable relationships. For its effective working there needs to be an inherent continuity of traditions and outlook that preserves its identity as a society and protects it against the disruptive effects of shift. Change must be for life and not static but this change in turn must be commanded by the basic customs of society. It’s tradition that gives a country its own character and distinctiveness as a society. The conservation of heritage therefore is always crucial.It’s been recognized from time immemorial that the conservation of traditional education has a very important role to play in the development of the child. The children of today are the adults of tomorrow; they have to be trained consequently, to inherit and reevaluate the beliefs and styles of life peculiar to the particular society to which they belong. For each and every society has the urge to maintain itself not just physically but as community consciously sharing particular goals, ideals and patterns of behaviour. This sort of instruction is not necessarily formal in schools by means of classroom instruction but that effected through the family and throughout the influence on the person of social influences and habits that the child cannot evade. In Sierra Leone this social education comprised elaborate ceremonies of initiation involving feats of endurance where young women and men have to prove themselves worthy of the community. The best aim was to produce a person who was fair, respectful, skilled, concerted, and who could adapt to the social order of this day. Since Aristotle once stated”the constitution of a state will suffer if education is failed. The citizens of a country should always be educated to match the constitution of this nation. The type of character appropriate to a constitution would be the energy which continues to sustain it as it’s also the country force that originally created it” (p. I).TRADITIONAL EDUCATION IN SOCIETYConventional education has both a creative and conservation purpose in society; it is a powerful way of maintaining a society’s customs, or even civilization. Previously the nature and needs of society played an essential part in determining the disposition of education. Professor M.V.C. Jeffreys (1950) once wrote in his book, Glaucon, that”at a calm society that the educational system will tend to reflect the societal pattern, while social uneasiness and instability produce opportunity for utilizing education as an instrument of social change”(p.7). Traditional education may be employed to prepare for changes in society and anticipate and prevent changes or the consequences of fluctuations in society.